On the Marathas…

Meanwhile the task of resisting Aurangzeb called less for a saint than for a man of action ; and such a man appeared in the person of Sivaji Bonsla, the son of a chief of no great property in the neighbourhood of the Western Ghauts to the east of Bombay. Born in 1627 – the year when George Villiers, Duke of Bucking- ham, led his abortive expedition to Rochelle – he was brought up at Puna, and early conceived the ambition of dispossessing the Mohammedans of the south, and setting up a Hindu kingdom in their stead. His men were hardy peasants from the mountains ; his horses, not less important than his men, were drawn from the valleys; and with these he sallied forth to capture hill-fortresses, and to use them as bases for raids upon the surrounding country. Being a great military genius he rapidly achieved success; and by 1664 had carried his incursions so far as to seize and sack the imperial city of Gujarat. This was a direct defiance to Aurangzeb, who sent an army to crush him, and succeeded in forcing him to surrender upon terms; but the wily chief soon contrived to escape, and returning to the Dekhan quickly reestablished and widened his ascendancy. He died in 1680, but he had already done his work in founding the power of the Marathas.

What the Marathas exactly were or are no one seems able accurately to define. They were not a caste, they were not a sect, they were not a nation; and, though some of them claim to be of Rajput origin, this pretension seems to be disposed of by anthropometric tests. Their name is taken from the territory of Maharashtra, and their language is called Marathi ; but they are not the only inhabitants of that territory nor the only speakers of that tongue. In 1901 they numbered only five millions; and yet in the seventeenth century they ruined the armies of Aurangzeb, shattered the might of the Moguls and bade fair to become the masters of India. It is difficult therefore to predicate anything certain of them except that they were and are emphatically a power, and that they rose to that eminence wholly by the sword. Yet, though they were valiant warriors, their military organisation was loose enough ; while their military tactics, if one may coin an expression, were of the offensive-elusive order. They swarmed out as great disorderly bodies of horse, devouring the country like locusts, carefully avoiding anything like a pitched battle, but hovering always about their enemy’s flanks and communications, swift to see and to make profit of the slightest advantage, equally swift to perceive and to avoid any danger. Thus they wore out the Mogul armies, and broke the hearts of their generals by remaining always near enough to inflict much mischief, but always remote enough to suffer no harm. If they were suddenly compelled to assume the defensive, they had a perfect genius for choosing and occupying a position where they could resist attack ; and woe to the army that retreated before them. Their leaders have always included some of the deepest and subtlest intellects in India ; and yet their genius, so long as their ascendancy lasted, revealed itself as mainly destructive, and their instincts as wholly predatory. They levied tribute remorselessly, under pain of pillage, upon vast districts, and on condition of payment suffered them to escape famine and desolation. They showed, indeed, remarkable administrative talent in the collection of that tribute; but there their constructive work came to an end. It is therefore hard to see how India could have improved – how indeed it could have failed to deteriorate – under their mastery. The history of the country, so far as we have traced it, has been a continuous record of wars, revolts and intestine divisions ; in the midst of which, at rare intervals of precarious repose, there had sprung up noble monuments of art and literature. There was nothing creative about the Marathas. Their reign, it is true, was short; but, even had it been prolonged, we can hardly conceive of the association of poetry or architecture with their name. For all their valiance and subtlety their rule was a blight rather than an influence. Once indeed, and in one particular, they imitated a foreign model in their own domain of war ; and we must now examine where they found this model, and how it was turned to their own ruin.

via text of “Narrative of the visit to India of their majesties, King George V. and Queen Mary, and of the coronation durbar held at Delhi, 12th December, 1911” by Fortescue, John, Sir, 1859-1933.

4 thoughts on “On the Marathas…

  1. Pretty subhuman and imbecilic understanding of the Marathas.

    Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaja was the son of Maharaja Farzand Shahajiraje Bhonsale, a mighty Kingsmaker of Deccan who pulled strings on Nizam Shahis as well as Adil Shahis considerably and fought against the Mughals and was a renowned figure.

    Marathas are only partial claimants of Rajput dynasties. Only roughly 20 of the 96 clans are descended from Rajputs and are well recorded in Deccan Sultanate history. Just because foolish British surveyors and likes of Grant Duff could not research beyond a degree with any primary sources and inscriptions doesn’t mean they were upstart sub-alterns.

    They were very powerful and aristocratic endogamous caste-community of warriors and rulers from 96 Kshatriya clans of Hindus of Deccan and North India.

    1. Though they were powerful they still served the various Bahamani kingdoms and would change sides as it suited them.

  2. Read more books before embarrassing yourself with such foolish statements. I was cringing at nearly every line. Utterly baseless colonial dark age ramble.

    First subhumans burn lur palaces and forts, ignore our varied works of literature, paintings then make statements like dullards about how we had no go Architecture or Paintings or literature.

    We have produced more in our 170+ years of reign than subhuman Anglo-Saxon mutt history of Britain or wherever the author of this post lives has produced in millennia.

    Our war tactics were superior to Parthians and Mongols. Our leaders are still worshipped as deities across India. We ended thralldom of Hindus from invaders after nearly a millennia.

    1. You are missing the point of the post, it is to give a perspective of what the British thought of the Marathas. I have read enough books, including Indian historians like Jadunath Sarkar, Babasaheb Purandare and Setu Madhavrao Pagadi. Not sure what your reference books are, perhaps those of Shivaji Savant or Vishwas Patil who write more historical fiction than fact.

      Your ramble seems to indicate that you are on a ego trip about origins of your caste. Cringe as much as you can

      > Our war tactics were superior to Parthians and Mongols.

      Some proof for this.

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